Samarkand, an administrative centre of Samarkand Province, is the third-largest city in Uzbekistan, as well as in the large size of population which makes about 529900. The total territory of the city Samarkand is 120 square kilometres located on the height of about 720 metres above sea level. The historical and ancient centre of the city is considered to be the Registan Square and Ensemble.
According to the book “Samaria” of Abu Tahirkhoja Samarkandi, there are five versions of the origin and etymology of the city name. Firstly, it tells that a man with the name of Samar came to live in the city and created a settlement where people from the neighbourhood started to move there. After this, the city is called Samarkand, especially after the Arab conquest of Central Asia. Secondly, the book tells that a khan named Samar Bakir attacked the city, captured and destroyed its walls. Thereafter, the city became famous as Samar goat, from Turkish translated as Samar Subcapus or Samar Copal.
Thirdly, the history related to the first tells that a khan with the name of Samar with his army came inside the city area and created Turkic settlement where people moved to, and after the Arab conquest, the city was called Samarkand. Fourthly, it, also related to the first and third, tells that one of maliks named Samar destroyed the walls of the city, and in subsequence of the arrival of Arabs, the city was called Samarkand. Finally, in the last version, the book tells that there was a spring in the place of the city which was called Samar. Subsequently, people started to live in the surrounding of this spring. As a result of this, Samarkand city, the city with a spring, was created.
More than two thousand years the city was the main point of the Great Silk Road between Europe and China, as well as the main centre of medieval eastern science. In the 14th century, Samarkand was the capital of Tamerlane empire and the Timurid dynasty. This period was the highest development for the city which includes most of the architectural masterpieces. From 1925 to 1930, Samarkand city was the capital of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In 2001, Samarkand city and its historical architectural and archaeological monuments have been listed in UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name of "Samarkand — crossroads of cultures".