The village was founded in 1933 on Trans-Caspian railway in connection with the development of an oil field. That is why, Balkanabat, an administrative centre in Balkan Province, was previously called as Neftedag or Nebit Dag. Then, since 1999 it has been renamed as Balkanabat, which is located in the western part of Turkmenistan and southern part of Big Balkan Ridge (up to 1880 m). It takes 400 km from Ashgabat to the north-west of the city, and 130 km from the south-east of Turkmenbashi. There is an airport nearby to the city, as well as a railway station in the city. Balkanabat city is famous for the production of natural gas and oil. In 2011 the population was 120,8 thousand people, 80% of which were Turkmens-yomuds, 15% - Russians, 3% - Kazakhs, 2% - Azerbaijanis, 10% - Lezgins, Armenians, Uzbeks, Tatars, Jews and others.
Despite this, there are famous buildings, such as State Drama Theatre, History Velayat Museum, Diagnostic Centre, Matrimonial Palace, Railway Station, Regional Library, 10000-seat Stadium and Multidisciplinary Market. Also, there are some facts why tourists prefer to visit this city, which is: Nativity Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary established in 1990; “Pioneers” architecture-memorial ensemble; Health trail at the foot of the ridge; and nearby the city in 1985 filmed the movie “Kin-dza-dza”.